Aperçu of An Egg

April 18, 2012

No clever arrangement of bad eggs ever made a good omelet.
~C.S. Lewis

My abiding love for these smooth, sumptuous ovals known as eggs has been well chronicled here. I am unabashedly smitten.

Recently, from small farmers to urbanites and in between, there has been a marked upsurge in local egg coops. Backyard hatcheries are sprouting up across the country. Home-raised fresh eggs from well fed and exercised hens with rich, dark yolks and intense flavors and textures are in vogue. Some of this movement is cuisine based, others find pleasure in raising their own stock, but still others are drawn to home coops due to concerns about the health and welfare of egg layers shoved into cramped quarters on fetid farms. Cries of cruelty and abuse in the egg industry have been heard. Admittedly, the thought of a dozen lifer hens crammed into a cage the size of an oven does make me cringe. Then again, this is a nation that takes perverse pride in lengthy, overcrowded incarcerations–at shameful rates that dwarf other societies. Not exactly the land of the free range.

But what of a glimpse at a hen egg’s oological self? Its anatomy and architecture?

The hard outer shell, composed mainly of calcium carbonate, has several thousand pores which allow moisture and gases to permeate in and out of the egg. This porous structure also can leech foul fridge odors, so store eggs in their cartons. Directly inside the exterior shell are two other protective membranes, the testa and mammilary layers.

Chicken eggs emerge in varying shades because of pigments which are deposited as the eggs travel through the hen’s oviduct. The pigment depositions are determined by the bird’s genetics, with eggs ranging from deep brown to pale blue to pink to green to cream to white. Although not always consistent, chickens with white ear lobes tend to produce white eggs, while those with red ear lobes lay brown eggs. Classic white egg laying breeds include Andalusians, Faverolles, Dorkings, Leghorns, and Lakenvelders. Barnevelders, Rhode Island Reds, Jersey Giants, Delawares, and Orpingtons are known more for brown eggs, which vary in hue from light cream to dark brown.

When the egg is freshly laid, the shell is completely filled. An air cell is formed at the wide end by contraction of the contents during cooling and by the loss of moisture. The smaller the air pocket, the better the egg.

The white, or albumen, is composed of 90% water with the remainder protein. The outer white is the thin edge of the white which cooks more quickly than the center. The inner white is thick and firmer than its cousin on the edge. The white’s ability to form a relatively stable foam is crucial to the development of structure in dishes such as angel food cakes, soufflés, and meringues. It also serves as a clarifier and binder.

Chalazae
are a pair of spiralled cords that anchor the yolk in the center of the thick albumen. Chalazae may vary in size and density, but do not affect either cooking or nutritional value.

The clear yolk membrane (vitelline membrane) surrounds and cushions the yolk. An egg’s yolk delivers vitamins, calories and nutrients, including protein and essential fatty acids along with a natural emulsifier called lecithin. Yolk color ranges from light yellow to deep orange usually depending on diet. The germinal disc, or nucleus, appears on the surface of the yolk as a white dot. Yolks are critical to sauces such as mayonnaise, hollandaise and some vinaigrettes, even pastas and soups.

As with scrambled, soft boiled, fried, poached, and countless others the recipes below use the whole egg. Just a couple of additions to other deviled egg ideas on the site. See A Devil’s Eggs.

DEVILED EGGS WITH DUCK RILLETTE

6 large eggs

3 T mayonnaise (preferably homemade)
1 T crème fraîche
1/2 T dijon mustard
1 scallions, white and light green part only, finely chopped
1/4 C duck rillette
Sea salt and freshly ground black pepper

Capers, rinsed and drained

Place eggs in heavy, medium sauce pan, and add enough cold water to cover by 2″ or so. Bring to a boil over high heat, uncovered. Immediately remove from heat, cover, and let stand for 12 minutes. Drain hot water off eggs and then carefully transfer eggs to a large bowl of ice water to halt the cooking process. Then dry thoroughly with a kitchen towel. Gently crack the eggs and peel under cool running water, taking care not to mar the white.

Cut peeled eggs in half lengthwise, spooning yolks into a bowl. Using a fork to mash, mix in mayonnaise, then crème fraîche, mustard, scallions, duck rillette, salt and pepper. Using a pastry bag or heavy plastic bag snipped on one corner, pipe mixed filling into egg whites, mounding slightly. Easier yet, simply spoon the yolk mixture into the open egg whites.

Cover loosely with plastic wrap and chill eggs in an airtight container for at least 2 hours, even overnight. When serving, top each egg with a few capers.

DEVILED EGGS WITH PROSCUITTO

6 large eggs

4 T mayonnaise (preferably homemade)
1/2 T Dijon mustard
1/2 t fresh lemon juice
1/4 C proscuitto, chopped
2 T parmigiano-reggiano, grated
Sea salt and freshly ground black pepper

Basil leaves, cut into chiffonade

Place eggs in heavy, medium sauce pan, and add enough cold water to cover by 2″ or so. Bring to a boil over high heat, uncovered. Immediately remove from heat, cover, and let stand for 12 minutes. Drain hot water off eggs and then carefully transfer eggs to a large bowl of ice water to halt the cooking process. Then dry thoroughly with a kitchen towel. Gently crack the eggs and peel under cool running water, taking care not to mar the whites.

Cut peeled eggs in half lengthwise, spooning yolks into a bowl. Using a fork to mash, mix in mayonnaise, then the mustard, lemon juice, proscuitto, parmigiano-reggiano, salt and pepper. Using a pastry bag or heavy plastic bag snipped one corner, pipe mixed filling into egg whites, mounding slightly. Easier yet, simply spoon the yolk mixture into the open egg whites.

Cover loosely with plastic wrap and chill eggs in an airtight container for at least 2 hours, even overnight. When serving, top each egg with some ribboned basil.

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I don’t do drugs. I am drugs.
~Salvadore Dali

I meant to embark on the fierce rivalry that has ensued between the United States and Mexico which will be renewed in the title match of the Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF) Gold Cup tonight in Pasadena (formerly in Mexico). The U.S. and Mexico have shared 9 of the 10 Gold Cup tournament championships. Much is at stake as the winner qualifies for the next Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Confederations Cup, a preview of the 2014 World Cup in Brazil. But, what follows seemed more important.

Squandering billions monthly on an ineffective policy with lives, capital and truth as casualties sounds just like the misguided Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. No, this ongoing waste derives solely from the failed four decade long War on Drugs. As the Global Commission on Drug Policy recently concluded, “…the evidence overwhelmingly demonstrates that repressive strategies will not solve the drug problem, and that the war on drugs has not, and cannot, be won.” The esteemed, independent 19-member panel was comprised of former heads of state, a former U.N. secretary-general, a business mogul and even an author. They did not mince words. The report issued by the commission and delivered to the White House and Congress calls on governments to promptly end the criminalization of marijuana and other controlled substance use. They urged that governments instead institute drug policies based on methods empirically proven to reduce crime, lead to better health, and promote economic and social development. Drug users who are in need should be offered treatment, not incarceration.

The commission—which included George Schultz, who held cabinet posts under Presidents Reagan and Nixon and former Federal Reserve chairman Paul Volker—is particularly critical of the United States, which must change its drug policies from those guided by anti-crime, “lock ’em up” approaches to ones rooted in health care and human rights. By financing domestic law enforcement to the exclusion of treatment, our government has wrongly focused on punishment rather than supporting prevention. That myopic approach comes as little surprise in this reactionary land.

The fiscal costs of this so-called war have been staggering. As recently as 2008, a study authored by Harvard economist Jeffrey Miron estimated that legalizing drugs alone would inject almost $80 billion a year into the U.S. economy. Over $20 billion has been directly spent on the purported War on Drugs in the first half of this year alone. Then, there is the shameful stat that the United States has 5% of the world’s population, yet 25% of the world’s inmates are housed in our overflowing, understaffed prisons. Too often, these joints are far from correctional or rehabilitative, but instead focus on punitive measures which only serve to rend the human spirit. A great percentage of these prisoners are drug offenders, caught up in a deeply flawed agenda. This makes little mention of the concomitant creation of a racially disparate and societally displaced underclass many of whom now have shattered and scattered families, criminal records, no voting rights, no income sources, and suffer severly limited educational and job opportunities. Once on the street, their futures are bleak.

After over 40 years, over 40 million arrests and over a trillion dollars imprudently spent, is it not time to shelf this misconceived war on drugs as another failed experiment? This move has been much too long in the making.

As the report declared, “(T)he global war on drugs has failed, with devastating consequences for individuals and societies around the world. Fifty years after the initiation of the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and years after President Nixon launched the U.S. government’s war on drugs, fundamental reforms in national and global drug control policies are urgently needed.”

On to some south of the border fare for tonight’s match…

CILANTRO, CUMIN & LIME RICE

2 C long grain white rice
2 C chicken stock
2 C water

2 T canola oil
1/2 medium yellow onion, peeled and chopped
3 plump, fresh garlic cloves, peeled and minced

1/2 C chopped fresh cilantro
1/2 t dried cumin seeds, lightly roasted then ground
Zest of 1 fresh lime
Juice of 1 fresh lime
1 pinch sea salt

In a medium pot, heat the oil over medium heat. Add the onions and garlic, and cook about 5 minutes or until the onions are translucent and the garlic only lightly golden. Add the rice, stir with a wooden spoon to coat well, and cook for 1 minute.

In a small bowl gently mix the chopped cilantro, cumin, lime zest and juice. Add the stock and water, cilantro/lime mixture and salt. Bring to a boil, stir and decrease the heat to low.

Cover and cook for about 20 minutes or until the water is absorbed and those telltale “fish eyes” appear on the surface. Remove from the heat and let rest for 5 minutes.